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XFCE vs. Cinnamon 2018

Summary -- The superiority of XFCE or Cinnamon comes down to use cases, and of course preference -- de gustibus non est disputandum.

XFCE Superiority

XFCE is a delight in many ways, when compared with Cinnamon: - Less memory and processor utilization - A bit more stable (though this could be an instability with Nemo) - Faster/easier to configure (the settings menus are much better organized with fewer top-level items)

Cinnamon Superiority

At the same time, Cinnamon has definitely fixed/improved a few things: - Keyboard settings to reconfigure standard keyboard remapping (Win/Cmd/Super remapping, CapsLock behavior) - Shortcuts on the start menu, ease of adding apps from the menu to the dock, and in general a more elegant start menu w/ search, better spacing Beyond these issues, everything else seems to be about applications. Both can do everything else more or less similarly. * Note: one can install Cinnamon on Debian directly, or try Linux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE), or simply standard Mint (an Ubuntu derrivative) and Cinnamon. Cinnamon is also available for a few other Linux distributions.

Nautilus beats Nemo and Thunar

Nemo is simply unstable. Try doing some drag-and-drop and it soon slows, hangs, quits. Thunar is nice, but there is no handy search or buttons to toggle between views. Everything has to be committed to remembered keyboard shortcuts. Silly. Nautilus is not perfect by any means. A seeming limitation of the icon view size set to max 133% is a disappointment. However, beyond that it is very good and definitely an improvement over Nemo and Thunar.

Cinnamon - Better Keyboard Support, Better Dock/Menu

The bottom line is that while Cinnamon has greater resource demands, and a bit less stability, it has a better dock/menu interface and better keyboard configuration support. This makes it a premium modern desktop for Debian and Ubuntu (via the Linux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE).

XFCE - Better Resource Management for Low End Devices

Either Debian + XFCE or the Linux Mint XFCE edition are appropriate for low-end devices, say those with 4gb or less of RAM. This would be appropriate for the Asus C101PA Convertible Chromebook.

See Also for Linux on the ASUS C101PA

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Debian + Cinnamon Keyboard Shortcuts

> Note: This is Incomplete

Function LMDE3 ChromeOS
Refresh Ctrl+R
Task List
Partial Screenshot

Debian Terminal

Under Edit > Preferences > Shortcuts set the Edit > Copy, Edit > Paste, and Edit > Select All accelerator keys to Ctrl+C, Ctrl+V, and Ctrl+A respectively.


Under Keyboard > Shortcuts > System > Screenshots and Recording assign F5 to Take a screenshot of an area. This is more efficent than the Ctrl+Shift+F5 of the standard ChrOS keystroke and the standard Dim keyboard backlight setting doesn't apply as I do not use backlit keyboards. In ChrOS it makes sense even to map the Overview (F5) key to partial screenshot as I really don't use that function in any case.

Keyboard Layouts Options

> Keyboard > Layouts > Options - Alt/Win key behavior - Ctrl is mapped to Win keys (and the usual Ctrl keys) - Caps Lock key behavior - Make Caps Lock an additional Hyper (deal with this later to create the Search behavior in ChrOS, if desired) - Switching to another layout - Caps Lock, though this really makes the Shift+Caps Lock function as a language switcher. Note that the last one would be better aligned with ChrOS' Ctrl+Space to switch between languages, if possible. It is more like the OSX Cmd+Space language toggle keystroke.


Since I prefer to have ctrl+c be copy, then that can't be quit, and so I set the break command to ctrl-e using stty.

stty break ^e

However, that is not really necessary since ctrl+\ and ctrl+4 both also institute a quit or break in the console.


Set the default shell to Bash

chsh -s /bin/bash

> Note: have to log out and back in to see this work.

Notes (Incomplete)

  • With small keyboard there is no actual delete, only backspace. Need to change so the delete key can/is the backspace and so can delete in the file manager (nemo). Actually Fn+Delete = Delete on the Apple wireless keyboard, whereas Delete is actually Backspace.
    • Note that Nemo is so horribly slow when/after doing delete/paste of files between windows, I've gone on to use Nautilus. Also, Nautilus has good batch file renaming, whereas Nemo is woefully incomplete.
  • For rename, note: Fn+2 and slow double-click (nemo only) works.
  • Set the Bash so that it maps my favorite scripts (lx for ls -la), environment editor (nano), and in terminal so ctrl-E is the stop command.
    • Done
  • Set a partial screenshot keystroke / keyboard shortcut
    • Done (F5), set this in the Keyboard control panel/settings.
  • Install exo-utils and run exo-preferred-applications to set the file managers and browsers (though is this read by Cinnamon?)
  • Install and Run dconf-editor to set preferences in a variety of apps/locations
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Fish Shell – Friendly Interactive SHell

Note: I've replaced Fish Shell with Bash in my personal technology stack, as of March 2018. Ha ha, back on Fish Shell. Fish Shell is a very useful shell. I use it on OSX and Linux. Provides for some sanity at the command line. For an editor I use Nano. Note that there are some limitations, and a learning curve on getting it set up. However, it does have some limitations, and is definitely newer than other shells. When trying to run a command that won't work in fish, then simply invoke bash and get it done. No real limitations to speak of. For doing shell scripting, it is very straightforward and definitely more modern. Useful docs on the fish shell available.

What Fish Can't Do (So Well)

Fish is a bit more limited as a general purpose command/utility invoker, as it seems to throw errors. Overall, it is a bit cranky, and really only best when doing scripting. To that end, better facility with Python will probably fill in the gaps around Bash that Fish does well, while focusing on tool that would be even more extensible.

See Also

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Bash Shell Scripting

Bash being the most common shell, it makes sense to learn bash shell scripting. I didn't think this at first and later came to the conclusion, having spent time with Fish Shell. However, Bash is definitely old and creaky with some frankly ridiculous implementation details. Fish can be installed most everywhere, and is generally superior in many ways. Where it is not, commands can simply be run in Bash.

Variables, Conditionals, Utilities

Most of Bash scripting is variables (including initially environment variables), conditionals, and utilities. For example, the common task of changing the names of files in a directory, copying them, moving them, etc., is a combination of setting up variables (e.g., $f for filenames of a given sort), then looping over (while) them and executing various commands (mv, cp, etc.).

See Also

Touring Complete Programming Language

Apparently, Bash is Turing complete, which means it is fairly sophisticated, complex, and thorough. That doesn't mean it should be used for everything, but certainly can be used for many things. Python would be a competitor in terms of doing shell scripting, but it would depend on how complicated, or exactly what kind of functionality is needed in order to prefer Python over Bash in terms of scripting.

Current Assessment of Shell Scripting in Bash

For scripts that run simple commands (such as openvpn or autossh then Bash simply handles errors better with an old-school shim when missing a shebang. However, dealing with ease and elegance with actual scripting, and working from a modern design document, Fish is hard to beat.

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Portable Music Players & Linux

This article briefly describes some issues with managing portable music players on Linux, particularly the Apple Ipod Shuffle and the Sandisk Clip Jam (it's replacement).

Quod Libet

Quod Libet is absolutely zero help with managing portable music players (with a single exception, the generation of playlist.m3u files). This is a big regret since it has much of what I need in a music manager, including: - Low resource utilization - Relatively fast and stable when indexing large collections - Ability to edit metadata on individual and groups of files - Dark theme Therefore, I have to look outside of QL in order to manage portable music players.

Playlists in Quod Libet

Based on my workflow and media organization in Quod Libet, what I generally do for a playlist is clean up a set of albums/tracks from one or more artists and one or more albums, then create a playlist out of that. This generally means the complete contents of one or more albums organized under one or more artists. This allows me to use the Export as Playlist plugin which generates an *.m3u file with some pathing that needs to be cleaned up.

Sandisk Clip Jam Playlist Lament

My review of the Sandisk Clip Jam is a lament to SCJ Playlists: > Since playlists are important for portable media players, they should have a well-thought-out approach. Unfortunately this is not the case. One has to monkey about with .m3u files and actually edit them by hand. Sad and a bit nuts as well. > > Several issues: > > The namespace is effectively 7 characters, so don't have directories with playlists that might conflict on those first 7 characters. > > There are three "quick" playlists but no way to get them out of the way, so there is always "click, click, click" to get past them since they are the first three. I don't care to make playlists on the go, so please let me make these go away. > > .m3u file needs to have the full path of the location, e.g., Music/Joy Division/Peel Sessions/01 Exercise One.mp3 > > Unlike as stated in the documentation and forums, the music files do not need to be in the same directory as the playlist file, and they can be stacked all in Music with referenced directories and subdirectories underneath. > > CRLF for returns > > Obviously this is a nasty and brutish way of handling playlists, and so various scripting is needed to get things working without a huge amount of ongoing time being wasted. > > Also, the cheap and huge earbuds (unwearable in my medium-sized ears) are really a waste. No one really expects anything good to be bundled, so save the earth a little. > > Overall the device itself is pretty decent, except for the glaring problem noted above.

How to Create and Edit Sandisk Clip Jam *.m3u Playlists

The key is to use a media player/manager to generate the .m3u playlist, and then search/replace to change the paths in the files to match that of the Sandisk Clip Jam, which is generally Music/Artist/Album. Since my audio library has the very same structure, it is not difficult to copy entire albums and artists (with their albums) to the Sandik Clip Jam. As noted above, the playlists need to have the same Music/Artist/Album/Track structure. However, the playlists themselves can repose in the same Music directory. *Note: VLC can also perform the function of generating playlists, though my choice is Quod Libet, using the Export as Playlist plugin which generates an *.m3u file. After creating the playlists and editing them, copying wholesale the directory structure into Music completes the operation. Updates begin in Quod Libet and then a delete/recopy is necessary (akin to Ipod/Itunes operations)

GTKpod for Ipod Audio Management

[GTKpod](creating/editing playlists and ) is one of the last relatively decent and straightforward Ipod (only) managers. Capable of drag-and-drop audio and creating/editing playlists. Installation is available from the Gnome Software Manager and elsewhere.

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Managing Fonts in Debian

Microsoft Core Fonts Installer

Check to see if this is installed via apt-cache

sudo apt-cache search ttf-mscorefonts-installer

More Fonts with Installers

More fonts to install, if needed


Copy Fonts to Directories


Note, better/easier to symlink to /usr/share/fonts/ if organized with a set of font directories. Example:

sudo ln -s /home/jeff/drive/github/code-128-font/fonts /usr/share/fonts/code-128-fonts

Rebuild the Font Cache

sudo fc-cache -fv

List all Installed and Cached Fonts


Reconfigure Fonts

This may be needed to support bitmap fonts.

dpkg-reconfigure fontconfig-config
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LMDE3 Cinnamon Modifications

Here are some ways of getting things tweaked. Your mileage may vary.


This theme has some hardcoded colors in PNG files. Grayscale them with ImageMagick, as follows:

for file in /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/*.png; do convert "$file" -colorspace Gray "$file"; done
for file in /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-3.0/assets/*.png; do convert "$file" -colorspace Gray "$file"; done

Edit the /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/gtkrc file for color. Replace #8fa876 with #993333 for a nice red to go with Mint-X-Red Icons. I prefer scrollbars with 15px width. Edit the /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-3.0/gtk.css file for color and scrollbar width. Replace #8fa876 with #993333 for a nice red to go with Mint-X-Red Icons. I prefer scrollbars with 15px width. Double the size of the following .png files in /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/ - slider-vert.png - slider-vert-active.png - slider-vert-insens.png - slider-vert-prelight.png - trough-vertical-active.png - trough-vertical.png

convert /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/slider-vert.png -resize 200% /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/slider-vert.png
convert /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/slider-vert-active.png -resize 200% /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/slider-vert-active.png
convert /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/slider-vert-insens.png -resize 200% /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/slider-vert-insens.png
convert /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/slider-vert-prelight.png -resize 200% /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/slider-vert-prelight.png
convert /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/trough-vertical-active.png -resize 200% /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/trough-vertical-active.png
convert /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/trough-vertical.png -resize 200% /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets/trough-vertical.png

Cinnamon Theme

Unfortunately there are also lots of .svg files in /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/cinnamon/ (both in subdirectories of /common-assets/ and /dark-assets/) with colors also hard-coded into them (bizarre, to say the least). These cannot be handled with ImageMagic convert, but rather either need to go through a process of conversion, grascaling, then converting back into .svg format (such as with Autotrace), or some other tool which can directly deal with color inside .svg files. Edit the /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/cinnamon/cinnamon.css file for color and scrollbar width. Replace #8fa876 with #993333 for a nice red to go with Mint-X-Red Icons.

Atom Application Scrollbars

Atom does not inherit these gtk configuration/theme settings and needs its Atom Scrollbars to be Configured Manually.

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Scrollbars in Atom, Firefox, Cinnamon

Scrollbar usability is shoddy and slipping across wide swaths of the web and software in general. Of course I am getting older, which means this is more and more of an annoyance. We know already, and for some time, how to do scrollbar usability and accessibility. Putting aside voice commands, just the bare minimum of finger and mouse pointer usability seems to hard for so many projects, and for so long. - Jakob Nielsen on Scrollbar Usability

Modifying Scrollbars in Atom Editor

Atom Editor requires several CSS overrides to get scrollbars modified.

Modifying / Customizing Scrollbars in Firefox

[Firefox has been without -webkit scrollbar functionality for the last 5 months, no wait, for the last 9 years... no wait, for the last 18 years. The work-arounds for this situation are a PITA. The only way to really deal with this is at the operating system level.

Modifying / Customizing Scrollbars in Linux Mint (and other Gtk windowing environments)

Editing Gtk themes for Linux Mint and other distributions takes a lot of effort of digging around. In many cases the CSS is imported in binary format for Adwaita, the Gtk3 base theme, and override ~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css file doesn't work. While for Mate and Gnome there are tools, there is no tool to edit the scrollbar in Cinnamon. So, besides the gtk-2.0 and gtk-3.0 various files, there are the .svg files for things like the scrollbar, which are hidden in a gtk-2.0 subdirectory, for example: - /usr/share/themes/Mint-Y-Dark/gtk-2.0/assets in .png file format or is that - /usr/share/themes/Mint-X/gtk-2.0/images/scroll in .svg file format It is all a quandry and the Linux Mint folks really need to be a bit better organized, no matter how disorganized their upstream Gtk cousins may be. Suffice it to say there are many different files, and different file syntaxes at work here. Some examples: - Gnome Developer gtkscrollbar - Linux Questions: How to enable scrollbar arrow? - Question about GtkScrollbar Class in Custom Theme - Cinnamon issues - scrollbar configuration in Sys Wrestling with these issues, I've been able to get some things working (e.g., arrows) and others not (e.g., widths), at various times, depending on the base theme that is enabled and edited. That said, I've still been unable to get the Nemo scrollbar to stop disappearing when not hovered/clicked/being scrolled. This is simply pathetic usability and accessibility. Don't hide important navigation elements. If scrolling is not possible (e.g., all content is viewed on a screen, and there is no part to scroll to) then by all means hide/remove the scrollbar. But when I am viewing a directory structure with more rows of files yet to see, hiding the scrollbar removes important information from the display.

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OpenVPN on Debian

OpenVPN on Debian is the second step in securing an operating system. Below we include ufw firewall installation and configuration as well.

Related Artices in Debian Services and Applications - Debian on AWS Lightsail - OpenVPN on Debian + UFW Firewall - Nginx and Letsencrypt on Debian - PHP & MariaDB on Debian

- Grav CMS on Debian

Note: install and configure ufw prior to openvpn installation and configuration

apt-get install ufw
sudo ufw allow http
sudo ufw allow https
sudo ufw allow 1194/udp
sudo ufw allow ssh
sudo ufw status
sudo ufw enable
sudo service ufw restart

; set the default to DROP Edit the ufw config file

nano /etc/default/ufw
  • Save Edit the before.rules
nano /etc/ufw/before.rules

Add the START OPENVPN RULES as follows:

# rules.before
# Rules that should be run before the ufw command line added rules. Custom
# rules should be added to one of these chains:
#   ufw-before-input
#   ufw-before-output
#   ufw-before-forward
# NAT table rules
# Allow traffic from OpenVPN client to eth0
# Don't delete these required lines, otherwise there will be errors

Save file Enable UFW

ufw enable

Check status

ufw status

Next install and configure the OpenVPN Server

Note: do this as root as it may not work otherwise, even with sudo

sudo apt-get install -y openvpn easy-rsa
gunzip -c /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/sample-config-files/server.conf.gz > /etc/openvpn/server.conf
nano /etc/openvpn/server.conf
  • uncomment push "redirect-gateway def1 bypass-dhcp"
  • uncomment/modify push "dhcp-option DNS"
  • uncomment/modify push "dhcp-option DNS"
  • uncomment user nobody
  • uncomment group nogroup Save file. Note at some point the file should look like this:
port 1194
proto udp
dev tun
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 32
mssfix 1450
reneg-sec 0
ca ca.crt
cert fir.crt
key fir.key  # This file should be kept secret
dh dh2048.pem
ifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt
push "redirect-gateway def1 bypass-dhcp"
push "dhcp-option DNS"
push "dhcp-option DNS"
keepalive 10 120
;tls-auth ta.key 0 # This file is secret
;cipher BF-CBC        # Blowfish (default)
;cipher AES-128-CBC   # AES
;cipher AES-256-CBC   # AES 256
;cipher DES-EDE3-CBC  # Triple-DES
user nobody
group nogroup
status openvpn-status.log
verb 3
explicit-exit-notify 0

Next, enable forwarding:

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

Enable forwarding again:

nano /etc/sysctl.conf

Uncomment net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

Next Configure and Build Certificates

Copy scripts and templates as follows:

cp -r /usr/share/easy-rsa/ /etc/openvpn
mkdir /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys
nano /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/vars
  • Change export KEY_ variables (there are six of them) to match the organization
  • Change the export KEY_NAME="EasyRSA" to your servername
  • Change the line export KEY_CONFIG=$EASY_RSA/whichopensslcnf $EASY_RSAtoexport KEY_CONFIG=/etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/openssl-1.0.0.cnf`
  • Save and exit Next, generate the dh parameters
openssl dhparam -out /etc/openvpn/dh2048.pem 2048

Next, clean up and build the ca, as follows:

cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa
chmod 0755 *
source ./vars

Generate Certificate and Key for the Server

Note: servername is your servername

./build-key-server servername

Note it will ask you to hit enter to accept variables multiple times, do that, and any additional questions just use enter. When it asks to sigh the cert and commit the cert, use y and y. Next, move the certs/keys, but make sure to change the servername as above:

cp /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/{servername.crt,servername.key,ca.crt} /etc/openvpn

Verify files were copied:

ls -la /etc/openvpn

Start the service and check status:

service openvpn start
service openvpn status

Make sure you see Active: active (exited) since...

Generate Client Certs

Note that clientname is the client name, but in reality it is actually for the servername, so you know what/where you will connect to. The main point is to rename the clientname.ovpn file to servername.ovpn after it has concatenated and moved to the client. Note: can use one client cert for everyone as long as the following line is added to the server.conf file: duplicate-cn

cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa
./build-key clientname

Next, copy and rename the client.conf to clientname.ovpn

cp /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/sample-config-files/client.conf /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn

Edit the .ovpn file:

nano /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn

Should be something like:

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- -----END CERTIFICATE----- -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- -----END CERTIFICATE----- -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY----- -----END PRIVATE KEY----- key-direction 1 client dev tun remote 1194 udp resolv-retry infinite nobind tun-mtu 1500 user nobody group nogroup persist-key persist-tun pull tls-client push "redirect-gateway def1" mssfix 1450 tun-mtu-extra 32 reneg-sec 0 ;ca ca.crt ;cert client.crt ;key client.key ns-cert-type server comp-lzo verb 3

Note that the concatenated (unified) OpenVPN profile includes the ca, cert, and key. This can be done as follows (fix the below, it puts stuff at the end, not begining:

echo '' >> /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn
cat /etc/openvpn/ca.crt >> /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn
echo '' >> /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn
echo '' >> /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn
cat /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.crt >> /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn
echo '' >> /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn
echo '' >> /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn
cat /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.key >> /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn
echo '' >> /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn

One can scp the file from server to client with the following command from the client:

scp -i /home/usr/drive/.ssh/servername.pem admin@servername:etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/keys/clientname.ovpn /home/usr/drive/.ssh/clientname.ovpn

Change names of drives and users as applicable.

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Debian on AWS Lightsail

This is a setup of several items, starting with Debian 9 on Amazon AWS Lightsail. This has server basics and apt, and then follows with links to additional articles. In general, after several years of running CentOS on Linode, and then Amazon Linux AMI on EC2 and Lightsail, I find that Debian 9 is simply faster, just as secure, and at least slightly easier to use. While there are many flavors of linux, clearly two particular lineages predominate: RHEL/CentOS/AMI and Debian/Ubuntu/Mint. Either are just as valid, though of course niche requirements may make one or the other more attractive. Android and ChromeOS are even more popular, but we are dealing with server OS here. For me, Debian on the desktop via LMDE3 (Linux Mint Debian Edition) is currently a favorite.

AWS Lightsail is a decently priced VPS package. Equivalents can be found in various first and second tier cloud providers such as Digital Ocean, Vultr, Linode, and perhaps even Azure and Google Cloud, who knows? Anyone with any experience with AWS can leverage this with Lightsail, though the main web interface is a bit different.

Related Artices in Debian Services and Applications - Debian on AWS Lightsail - OpenVPN on Debian + UFW Firewall - Nginx and Letsencrypt on Debian - PHP & MariaDB on Debian

- Grav CMS on Debian

Choose Debian Distribution

On Lightsail as of late 2018 Debian 9.5 is an option. - Install PHP from special repository sources (found in the Running PHP on Debian article) - Install special packages from Backports when needed (such as certbot) - Use apt install PACKAGE -y -t stretch-backports Example:

sudo apt install -y python-certbot-nginx -t stretch-backports

Packages available from Distributions

Update Debian

sudo apt update -y
sudo apt update -y -t stretch-backports update

Upgrade Debian

Do some checks and then execute upgrade and dist-upgrade: Note: accept the locally modified files for upgrading when asked.

sudo apt upgrade -y
sudo apt upgrade -y -t stretch-backports

Note: can have system service restarts be done automatically, when asked.

Upgrade Debian Distribution

This will change from one release to the next if there is a next one for the version being run (e.g., stable).

sudo apt dist-upgrade -y

Next, run the command to reload the terminal session:

hash -r

Steps in Configuration

Server Basics Steps

  • Configure servername, ip addresses
  • Apt, Configure repositories, Update, Upgrade, Clean, etc.

Servername, IP Addresses

For private IP Addresses

ip addr show eth0 | grep inet | awk '{ print $2; }' | sed 's/\/.*$//'

For a public IP address (esp. Amazon AWS Elastic IP)

curl -4

Apt Sources List

ls -la /etc/apt

and see what is in subdirectories

Installed packages

dpkg-query -l

apt-get commands

Note, this is largely obsolete with the apt command set -- need to UPDATE this section below

apt-get clean
apt-get autoclean
apt-get dist-upgrade
apt-get clean
apt-get check
apt-get autoremove
  • autoclean deletes .deb files from local cache
  • clean deletes .deb files from distribution installation
  • autoremove removes previous, but no longer needed dependencies
  • dist-upgrade deals with dependencies, not just applications, and will add/remove/upgrade them
  • apt-get check will check for dependencies missing note: difference between apt-get remove xyz vs. apt-get purge xyz, as the first preserves configuration files (for possible later use)

Completely Remove Packages

sudo apt-get --purge remove package-name